Doubt from probability

In illustration 29 can anyone explain second statement i didn't understand how where i have marked question mark ?

Illustration 30 is there any other method to solve this i think this is little lengthy calculations

Min=1+2+3+4+5
Max=3+4+5+6+7

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Illustration 7 i couldn't understand how the probability is 1/12 for events (T,1) till ( T,6) ? I understand the probability of 1/4 but not 1/12