Doubt from amines

I have forgotten one order of basic character it was taught in my school year 2°>1°>3° or 2°>3°>1° please tell which is for when it was taught due to some exceptional this order had no reason

And also what is solvation effect for deciding basic character of amines ?

I would help.

If possible make short notes for these type of thing (very helpful while revising)


Can you explain the reason behind second point in topic

That's because of a phenomenon called Ortho Effect... It is part theoretical and part experimental (observation).
That's something you need to learn, the way it's defined in the point.
Note - Same thing applies for Substituted Benzoic Acids as well where the group at ortho position increases it's acidity as compared to unsubstituted Benzoic Acid.

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Why in nitration of aniline meta derivative is more than ortho derivative why ?

This is a good observation...
Actually what happens is that, due to the acidic medium which we use during Nitration.. an Acid base equilibrium exists between aniline ( lewis base) and the acid...
In this equilibrium the acid protonates the -NH2 group and the new -NH3(+) group becomes meta-directing....
But overall the major product of the Nitration is para product actually..
I'm attaching a pic too...

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The reason given generally for this is hindrance caused by being ortho disaligns ortho group from giving any effective +M or -M effect since it depends on pi type donation which requires same plane alignment.
Thus inductive effect of ortho group is taken into account and for almost all the groups they give -I effect thus decreasing basic its by acting as electron withdrawing group.
Example SH,OH,...etc all give -I

In heating of amino acids why in only beta amino acid it removes Nh3 whereas in all cases H20 is released out

Stability of double bond thus formed by resonance with COOH group which is not possible in other amino acids

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Question no 23 and 26

Question 32

Question 41

Is 32 d?

Option B is answer and question 45

2 for the cyanide, 1 for the aldehyde, let me see why Cl and SH are not using GR.

I think 1 for the CN (bc CN is vinylic position; ultimately some CN derivate is only formed), 1 for the CHO, and 1 for the SH(active hydrogen)

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Question no 3

Question 5 too